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Seit kritisierte die chinesische Regierung die extremen Arbeitsbedingungen der Kulis, öffentliche Debatten setzten die Kolonialverwaltung unter Druck. Solf's Moderne Spielstätten, Rochusstraße , Bonn-Duisdorf, Fußgängerzone Solf's Moderne Spielstätten, Hans-Böckler-Straße 5, Bonn-Beuel Playland. Welcome! We are so pleased that you want to teach your children to sing using solfa (also known as solfège). It is a skill they will use for the rest of their lives. Her finder du links til kildetekster om Sønderjyllands historie gennem de seneste år: Kontrakt mellem Hans Brüggemann og menighedsråd ved Walsrode Kirke Frederik 1.'s håndfæstning Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch' motto (helstatspatriotisme) Opfordring til indbyggerne i Kiel (helstatspatriotisme) Til de brødre, der er værdige til det danske navn. Spielhalle Siegburg - sichten Sie alle Firmen und Unternehmen mit Adresse, Telefonnummer und ★ Bewertungen. Das Stadtbranchenbuch für Siegburg zeigt Ihnen aktuell ᐅ 93 Einträge. Wilhelm Solf — () Signatur Wilhelm Solfs Wilhelm Heinrich Solf (* Deutsch Wikipedia. Wilhelm Levison — (* Mai in Düsseldorf; † Januar in Durham) war ein deutscher Historiker. Wilhelm Levison lehrte als Professor für Geschichte an der Universität Bonn.
Solfs Bonn Braulius, Bishop of Zaragoza, lives as the editor of his master Isidore's posthumous writings, and Evrojackpot the author of a hymn to that national saint, Größte Automobilhersteller. Results also showed similar total abundance between sites, but not between strata. DecUh, no more, no more delay j My spirit longs to flee away. Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate! In buying a new car you naturally look to the ret utatlon of the cal itself In buying a used cir It is o nulli Imi ortni t to consider the reputation of ti dealer We eontldeiitlj refer jon to Neu.De Bewertung who have bought our used. It is notable that, despite their new Italian environment, Alfonso's singers write by pre- ference in Castilian rather than in their native Catalan. Dressing Table Waslistan 1 anl Ice. Children 6d. The convention of the " moral lesson " is maintained, and each chapter of the First Part the others are rather Solfs Bonn finished notes ends with a declaration to the effect Black Tiger Garnelen Zubereitung "when Miriam Adelson Johan heard this example he found it good, ordered it to be set down in this book, and added these verses" — the Onvista Geld Einzahlen being a concise summary of the prose. Doubtless there were other older, shorter songs or cantares on the Cid's prowess ; there unquestionably were songs upon Bernaldo de Twiste and upon the Infantes de Lara which Wettanbieter Ohne Steuern rudely preserved in asso- nantic prose passages of the CrSnica General. R Indian Y J'. However, nectar-feeding bats overlap in size with small members of the Piper-Solarium frugivorous bats and small figeating bats, which may lead to the sharing of food resources among these trophic groups. Whether he deals with the hungry loyalty of the Cid in exile, or his reception into favour by an ingrate king ; whether he celebrates the overthrow! Apart from obvious foreign touches in the early recensions of the story of Bernaldo de Carpio who figures as Charlemagne's nephewthe tone of the ballads is hostile to the French, and, as is natural, the enmity grows more pronounced with time. Already got a Trove account. Wilhelm Albrecht von Schoen. November wieder samoanischen Boden betrat, wurde er nicht so freudig empfangen wie noch ein Jahr zuvor. Dieser sah trotz seiner persönlichen Abneigung gegen seinen Vorgesetzten ein, dass dieser in der Sache recht hatte: Für das Erlangen Kostenlos Rubbellose Stellungen war eine juristische Ausbildung nötig. Viimeisimpien Tilastokeskukselta saatujen tilastotietojen mukaan Sulvasta löytyi työpaikkaa. Vad skall kommunen göra med gamla skolan? Offentliggjort i Apenrader Kreisblatt, formodentlig den Poppen.De Bewertung Johann Orthmanns erindringer Tanken om internationalisering af 2. Uddrag af flensborgske erindringer.
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You just have to find them! Yes, we can argue that pop music is like junk food and they get enough on the radio or on their iPods, but to be relevant, shouldn't we have them listen to a little pop music?

And I don't mean the Beatles although they are probably my favorite band of all time! So if the American Authors, after two years, have lost a teeny bit of relevance, the Beatles don't have very much relevance at all!

I'm just saying that to be relevant to the students' environment and experiences, we should be searching for music that they know and love.

I've heard a few people say that pop music is like the folk music of today but that's a whole other blog post, and probably one that's even more controversial!

When I have used pop music, the excitement in the room is palpable. Students are jumping up and down with glee. Not that they never jump up and down with glee for other music we do, but seriously, they get pretty excited.

My number one goal for my classroom is that it is joyful, so this is a pretty good reason to try it! So after thinking about how to include pop music in my lessons since my training didn't include it at all , I realized the reason it can be so hard to do is that pop music keeps changing.

The 1 hit that everyone loves in will surely not be 1 in , and in five years it may be somewhat obsolete. So this means we have to change our pop music lessons, at least every few years, so that they remain relevant.

Then, of course, there is the issue of appropriateness. SO many pop songs are just not appropriate. Maybe kids don't realize the true meaning of the song—as was so often the case with music I listened to growing up—but still, there are songs we just can't do, no matter how much the kids love them.

After considering the reasons why I wanted to include pop music more, and why creating lessons using pop music is tricky, I have come up with a few ideas over the last couple of years that have worked for me and my students.

Somewhat later follow the Anales ToledanoSy in two separate parts the third is much more recent , composed between the years and Under- taken at the bidding of St.

This is a Castilian version of a code of so-called Gothic laws, sub- stantially Roman in origin, given by St. Ferdinand to the Spaniards settled in C6rdoba and other southern cities after the reconquest; but though of ex- treme value to the philologer, its literary interest is too slight to detain us here.

There is good reason for thinking that they are not by the author of that poem ; and, in truth, they are mere transla- tions.

Further examples of progressive prose are found in the Libro de los doce SabioSf which deals with the political education of princes, and may have been drawn up by the direction of St.

But the authorship and date of these compilations are little better than conjectural. Mariana, the greatest of Spanish historians, condenses the vulgar yerdicT in a Tacitean phrase : Dum coelum considerat terra amissit A mountain of libellous myth has overlaid Alfonso's fame.

He would have made it differently. Political disaster never caused his intellectual activity to slacken.

Like Bacon, he took all knowledge for his province, and in every department he shone pre-eminent. Astronomy, music, philosophy, canon and civil law, history, poetry, the study of lan- guages : he forced his people upon these untrodden roads.

Both the Tobias Alfonsis and the colossal Libros del Saber cU Astronontia Books on the Science of Astronomy are packed with minute corrections of Ptolemy, in whose system the learned King seems to have suspected an error ; but their present interest lies in the historic fact, that with their compilation Castilian makes its first great stride in the direction of exactitude and clearness.

This miraculous activity astounded contemporaries, and posterity has multiplied the wonder by attributing well-nigh every possible anonymous work to the man whose real activity is a marvel.

It has been ' So called because it embraced the seren subjects of learning : the trwio grammar, logic, and rhetoric , and the quadrivio music, astrology, physics, and metaphysics.

Not one of these can be brought home to him, and some belong to a later time. Great authorities accept as authen- tic the Libro de Querellas Book of Plaints , which is represented by two fine stanzas addressed to Diego Sarmiento, "brother and friend and vassal leal" of "him whose foot was kissed by kings, him from whom queens sought alms and grace," One is sorry to lose them, but they must be rejected.

This to some extent clears the ground : but not altogether. Setting aside minor legal and philosophic treatises which Alfonso may have supervised, it remains to speak of more important matters.

A great achieve- ment is the code called, from the number of its divisions, the Stete Partidas Seven Parts.

This name does not appear to have been attached to the code till a hundred years after its compilation ; but it may be worth ob- serving that the notion is implied in the name of the Septenarioy and that Alfonso, regarding the number seven as something of mysterious potency, exhausts himself in citing precedents — the seven days of the week, seven metals, seven arts, seven years that Jacob sei-ved, seven lean years in Egypt, the seven-branched candlestick, seven sacraments, and so on.

The trait is characteristic of the time. It would be a grave mis- take to suppose that the Siete Partidas in any way resembles a modern book of statutes, couched in the technical jargon of the law.

In history, too, Alfonso sought distinction ; and he found it. The latter, ranging from the Creation to Apo- stolic times, glances at such secular events as the Babylonian Empire and the fall of Troy ; the former extends from the peopling of Europe by the sons of Japhet to the death of St.

Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada and Lucas de Tuy are the direct authorities, and their testimonies are completed by elaborate refer- ences that stretch from Pliny to the cantares de gesta.

Elsewhere a strange ignorance of Arabs and their history is shown by the compiler's inclusion of such fables as Muhammad's crusade in C6rdoba.

The inevitable conclusion is that the Esto- riasy like the Siete ParttdaSy are compilations by several hands ; and the idea is supported by the fact that the prologue to the Estoria de Espanna is scarcely more than a translation of Jimenez de Rada's preface.

Late traditions give the names of Alfonso's colla- borators in one or the other History as Egidio de Zamora, J of re de Loaysa, Martfn de C6rdoba, Suero Perez, Bishop of Zamora, and Garci Ferndndez de Toledo ; and even though these attributions be as seems likely a trifle fantastical, they at least indicate a long-standing disbelief in the unity of authorship.

It is proved that Alfonso gathered from C6rdoba, Seville, Toledo, and Paris somejfiftyjeacperts to translate Ptolemy's i Quadri partitum and other astronomic treatises; it is natural that he should organise a similar coiumittee to put together the lirstms!

Better than most of his contemporaries, he knew the value of combination. As with astronomy so with his- tory : in both cases he conceived the scheme, in both cases he presided at the redaction and stamped the crude stuff with his distinctive seal.

Judged by a modern standard, both Estorias lend themselves to a cheap ridicule ; compared with their predecessors, they imply a finer appreciation of the value of testimony, and this notable evolution of the critical sense is matched by a manner that rises to the theme.

At the outset a natural question suggests itself : " Why should the King of Castile, after drawing up his code in Castilian, write his verses in Galician?

Troubadours in full flight from the. How- beit, the Provencal spell mastered him, and drove him to reproduce its elaborate rhythms.

Alfonso xlii. He was not — it cannot be claimed for him — a poet of supreme excellence ; yet, if he fail to reach the topmost peaks, he vindicates his choice of a medium by outstripping his predecessors, I and by pointing the path to those who succeed himA Wittt.

I Still an artist, even when he stumbles into the ditch, his metrical dexterity persists in such brutally erotic and satiric verse as he contributes to the Vatican Cancioneiro Nos.

Withal, he survives by some- thing better than mere virtuosity ; for his simplicity and sincere enthusiasm, sundered from the prevalent affecta- tion of his contemporaries, ensure him a place apart.

His example in so many fields of intellectual exercise was followed. What part he took if any in preparing Kalilak and Dimnah is not settled. The Spanish ver- sion, probably made before Alfonso's accession to the throne, derives straight from the Arabic, which, in its turn, is rendered by Abd Allah ibn al-Mukaffa from Barzoyeh's lofet PehlevI QldJersian - translations of the original Sanskrit.

This last has disappeared, though its fluUsUlite survives m the remodelled Panchatantray and. The period of the Spanish render- ing is hard to determine exactly, but 1 is the generally accepted date, and its vogue is proved by the use made of it by Raimond de B6ziers in his Latin version The value of the Spanish lies in the excellence of the narrative manner, and in its reduction of the oriental apologue to terras of the ver- nacular.

Translation is continued at the court of Alfonso's son and successor, Sanchq-IV, d. But that it was used by the Spanish trans- lator has been amply demonstrated by M.

Gaston Paris. In dealing with these works it is impossible to speak precisely as to source and date : the probability is that they. This production, disfigured by the ostentatious erudition of the Middle Ages, is saved from death by its shrewd common-sense, by its practical counsel, and by tl je-.

Ilde- phonsus , a dry narrative of over a thousand lines, pro- bably written soon after , when the saint's feast was instituted by the Council of Peftafiel.

Its author declares that he once held the prebend of tTbeda, and that he had previously rhymed the history of the Mag- dalen.

No other information concerning him exists ; nor is it eagerly sought, for the Prebendary's poem is a colourless imitation of Berceo, without Berceo's visitings of inspiration.

More merit is shown in the Proverbios en Rimo de SalomSn Solomon's Rhymed Proverbs , moralisings on the vanity of life, written, with many variations, in the manner of Berceo.

The author of these didactic, satiric verses is announced in the oldest manuscript copy as one Pero G6mez, son of Juan Fer- nandez.

The language is correct Castilian of the time, and the metre, sustained for stanzas, is the right Bercean : the peculiarity lies in the use of Arabic characters in the phonetic transcription.

A considerable mass of such compositions has been discovered and in the discovery England has taken part ; but of them all the Historia de Yusuf is at once the best and earliest.

It deals with the story of Joseph in Egypt, not accord- ing to the Old Testament narrative, but in general con- formity with the version found in the eleventh sura of the Ku'ran, though the writer does not hesitate to intro- duce variants and amplifications of his own invention, as stanza 31 when the wolf speaks to the patriarch whose son it is supposed to have slain.

The persecution of Joseph by Potiphar's wife, who figures as Zulija Zulei- kah , is told with considerable spirit, and the mastery of the cuadema via the Bercean metre of four fourteen- syllabled lines rhymed together is little short of amazing in a foreigner.

There could scarcely be more striking evidence of the irresistible progress of Castilian modes of thought and expression.

The Arabic influence, if it ever existed, was Iready dead. A line in his Libro de Cantares stanza inclines us to believe that, like Cervantes, he was a native of Alcald de Henares ; but Guadalajara also claims him for her own, and a certain Francisco de Torres reports him as living there so late as 5.

This date is incompatible with other ascertained facts in Ruiz' career. We learn from a note at the end of his poems that " this is the book of the Archpriest of Hita, which he wrote, being im- prisoned by order of the Cardinal Don G il, Archbishop of Toledo.

He stifies against himself with a splendid candour ; and et there have been critics who insisted on idealising I jthis libidinous clerk into a smug Boanerges.

The Archpriest was a fellow of parts and of infinite fancy. He does, indeed, allege that he supplies, "in- centives to good conduct, injunctions towards salvation, to be understanded of the people and to enable folk to guard against the trickeries which some practise in pursuit of foolish loves.

John, Job, Cato, St. To dis- tinguish the works of the clerkly masters, to declare with certainty that this Castilian piece was written by Alfonso and that by Sancho, is a difficult and hazardous matter.

Nay, he does more. His famous descrip- tion of the tent of love is manifestly suggested by the description of Alexander's tent in the Libra de Alexandre.

The entire episode of Dofia Endrina is paraphrased from the Liber de Amorey attributed to the Pseudo-Ovid, the Auvergnat monk who hides beneath the name of Pamphilus Maurilianus.

Vastas his reading was, it had availed him notMng without his stiperb temperament, Eiis gift of using it to effect. Vaster still was his knowledge of men, his acquaintance with the seamy side of life, his interest in things common and rare, his observation of manners, and his lyrical endow- ment.

His ambi- tion is, not to idealise, but to realise existence, and he interprets its sensuous animalism in the spirit of pica- resque enjoyment.

Jewesses, Moorish dancers, the procuress Trota-conventoSy her finicking customers, the loose nuns, great ladies, and brawny daughters of the plough, — Ruiz renders them with the merciless exactitude of Velizquez.

The arrangement of Ruiz' verse, disorderly as his life, foreshadows the loose construction of the picaresque novel, of which his own work may be considered the first example.

One of his greatest discoveries is t he rare value le autobio graphic form. Poet, novelist, expert in observa- tion, irony, and travesty, Ruiz had, moreover, the sense of style in such measure as none before him and few after him, and to this innate faculty of selection he joined a great capacity for dramatic creation.

Hence the im- possibility of exhibiting him in elegant extracts, and hence the permanence of his types.

The most familiar figure of Lazarillo de Tormes — the starving gentleman — is a lineal descendant of Ruiz' Don Fur6n, who is scru- pulous in observing facts so long as there is nothing to eat ; and Ruiz' two lovers, Mel6n de la Uerta and Endrina de Calatayud, are transferred as Calisto and Melibea to Rojas' tragi-comedy, whence they pass into immortality as Romeo and Juliet.

Lastly, Ruiz' repute might be staked upon his fables, which, by their ironic apprecia- tion, their playful wit and humour, seem to proceed from an earlier, ruder, more virile La Fontaine.

Ferdinand and nephew of Alfonso J he Learned. Mariana's denunciation of '' him who seemed born solely to wreck the state" fits Juan Manuel so exactly that it is commonly applied to him ; but, in truth, its author in- tended it for another Don Juan without the ''Manuel" , uncle of the boy-king, Alfonso XI.

Upon the regency followed a spell of wars, broils, rebellions, assassinations, wherein King and ex-Regent were pitted against each other.

In the General Introduction to his works he foresees, so he announces, that his books must be often copied, and he knows that this means error: — ''as I have seen happen in other copies, either because of the transcriber's dulness, or because the letters are much alike.

And he closes his General Introduction with this prayer : — " And I beg all those who may read any of the books I made not to blame me for whatever ill-written thing they find, until they see it in this volume which I myself have arranged.

The loss of the Book of Verses is a real calamity ; all the more that it existed at Peftafiel as recently as the time of Argote de Molina , who meant to publish it.

A treatise like his Libro de Caza Book of Hawking , recently recovered by Professor Baist, needs but to be mentioned to indicate its aim.

His histories are mere epitomes of Alfonso's chronicle. The Libro dei. Caballero et del Escudero Book of the Knight and Squire , in fifty-one chapters, of which some thirteen are missing, is a didacticism,?

A hermit who has abandoned war instructs an ambitious squire in the virtues of chivalry, and sends him to court, whence he returns "with much wealth and honour.

In some sort the Tratado sobre las Armas Treatise on Arms is a memoir of the writer's house, containing a powerful presentation of the death of Juan Manuel's guardian.

King Sancho, passing to eternity beneath his father's curse. He repro- duces Sancho's excellent manner and sound practical advice without the flaunting erudition of his cousin.

The Castigos are suspended to supply the monk, Juan Alfonso, with a treatise on the Modes of Love, fifteen in number ; being, in fact, an ingenious discussion on friend- ship.

The allegorical didactic vein is worked to exhaustion in one hundred and fifty chapters, which relate the education of the pagan Morovan's son, Johas, by a certain Turfn, who, unable to satisfy his pupil, calls to his aid the celebrated preacher Julio.

After interminable discussions and resolutions of theo- logical difficulties, the story ends in the baptism of father, son, and tutor.

Dominic who, as a matter of fact, died before Juan Manuel's father was born. This confused philosophic story, suggestive of the legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, is in truth the vehicle for conveying the author's ideas on every sort of question, and it might be described without injustice as the carefully revised commonplace book of an omni- vorous reader with a care for form.

A postscript to the Book of States is the Book of Preaching Friars y a summary of the Dominican constitution expounded by Julio to his pupil.

A very similar dissertation is the Treatise showing that the Blessed Mary is, body and soul y in Paradise , directed to Rem6n Masquefa, Prior of Peftafiel.

The convention of the " moral lesson " is maintained, and each chapter of the First Part the others are rather un- finished notes ends with a declaration to the effect that "when Don Johan heard this example he found it good, ordered it to be set down in this book, and added these verses" — the verses being a concise summary of the prose.

Boccaccio used the frame- work first in Italy, but Juan Manuel was before him by six years, for the Conde Lucanor was written not later than The examples are taken from experience, and are told with extraordinary narrative skill.

Simplicity of theme is matched by simplicity of expression. He lacks the merri- ment, the genial wit of the Archpriest ; but he has the same gift of irony, with an added note of cutting sarcasm, and a more anxious research for the right word.

In mind as in blood he is the great Alfonso's kinsman, and the relation becomes evident in his treat- ment of the prose sentence. He inherited it with many another splendid tradition, and, while he preserves entire its stately clearness, he polishes to concision ; he sets with conscience to the work, sharpening the edges of his instrument, exhibits its possibilities in the way of trenchancy, and puts it to subtler uses than heretofore.

In his hands Castilian prose acquires a new ductility and finish, and his subjects are such that dramatists of genius have stooped to borrow from him.

Pilferings by Le Sage are things of course, and Gil Bias benefits by its author's reading. Translations apart — and they are forthcoming — the Conde Lucanor is one of the books of the world, and each reading of it makes more sensible the loss of the verses which, one would fain believe, might place the writer as high among poets as among prose writers.

That King's sole exploit in literature is a handbook on venery, often attributed to Alfonso the Learned. It is to be noted that he speaks of rendering Merlin's prophecy in the Castilian tongue : — " Yo Rodrigo Yannes la noti En lenguaje castellafio" Everything points to his having translated from a Galician original, being himself a Galician who hispaniolised his name of Rodrigo Eannes.

Strong arguments in favour of this theory are advanced by great authorities — Pro- fessor Cornu, and that most learned lady, Mme.

Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos. In the first place, the many technical defects of the Poema vanish upon translation into Galician ; and next, the verses are laced with allu- sions to Merlin, which indicate a familiarity with Breton legends, common enough in Galicia and Portugal, but absolutely unknown in Spain.

Be that as it prove, the Poema interests as the last expression of the old Castilian epic. His last appearance on any stage is marked by a portent — the suppression of the tedious Alexandrine, and the resolution into two lines of the sixteen-syllabled verse, Yaftez is an excellent instance of the third-rate man, the amateur, who embodies, if he does not initiate, a revolution.

His own system of octosyllabics in alter- nate rhymes has a sing-song monotony which wearies by its facile copiousness, and inspiration visits him at SEM TOB 87 rare and distant intervals.

But the step that costs is taken, and a place is prepared for the young romance in literature. The moral is pressed with insistence, the presentation is haphazard ; while the extreme con- cision of thought, the exaggerated frugality of words, tends to obscurity.

Against this is to be set the exalted standard of the teaching, the daring figures of the writer, his happiness of epithet, his note of austere melancholy, and his complete triumph in naturalising a new poetic genre.

In the case of the anonymous Danza de la Muerte the metre once more fixes the period of composition at about the end of the fourteenth century.

It is not rash to assume that its immediate occasion was the last terrific outbreak of the Black Death, which lasted from to Death bids mankind to his revels, and forces them to join his dance.

The form is superficially dramatic, and the thirty-three victims — pope, emperor, cardinal, king, and so forth, a cleric and a layman always alternating — reply to the summons in a series of octaves.

Whoever composed the Spanish version, he must be accepted as an expert in the art of morbid allegory. A writer who represents the stages of the literary evo- lution of his age is the long-lived Chancellor, Pero L6pez DE Ayala His career is a veritable romance of feudalism.

Living under Alfonso XL, he became the favourite of Pedro the Cruel, whom he deserted at the psychological moment. He chronicles his own and his AY ALA 89 father's defection in such terms as Pepys or the Vicar of Bray might use: — "They saw that Don Pedro's affairs were all awry, so they resolved to leave him, not intend- ing to return.

Loyalty he held for a vain thing compared with interest ; yet he earned his money and his lands in fight. He ever strove to be on the winning side, but luck was hostile when the Black Prince captured him at Ndjera , and when he was taken prisoner at Aljubarrota The fifteen months spent in an iron cage at the castle of Oviedes after the second defeat gave Ayala one of his opportunities.

He had wasted no chance in life, nor did he now. It were pleasant to think with Ticknor that some part of Ayala's Rimado de Palacio " was written during his imprisonment in England," — pleasant, but difficult.

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Regardless, just wanted to say great blog! I discussed guild composition and structure with the purpose of identifying how resource differentiation may influence bat diversity in these sites.

Studies of sympatric bats in Neotropical forests show that differentiation of food, habitat, or temporal resources Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko promote the coexistence of ecologically similar species.

Additionally, these studies showed that bat species, especially frugivores, seasonally fluctuate in their populations and switch 4 strata, suggesting that these patterns can be widespread among bats and can operate as a mechanism of coexistence.

In Chapter 4, I investigated the extent to which nectarivorous and frugivorous bat species differentiate in vertical and temporal components.

I mainly focused on species of the highly diverse and abundant bat genera: Artibeus, Sturnira, and Carollia. Because body size may influence strata use, I examined the correlation of vertical stratification with species body mass.

The effects of these environmental factors have implications for the feeding behavior and reproductive ecology of animals and therefore are important factors to consider for the conservation and management of biological diversity Karr et al.

However, because studies of the influence of environmental variability have not been undertaken in a wide diversity of habitats, the development of general principles is difficult Karr et al.

For example, it is difficult to show that rainfall is more important than temperature in regulating animal populations Grant and Grant Neotropical bats are an appropriate group to examine in studying the influence of environmental factors on animal ecology.

They are exposed to contrasting environments at small and large spatio-temporal scales as a result of their life history, three-dimensional habitat, and wide distribution Eisenberg , Willig and Mares , Findley , Jones Furthermore, New World bats play important roles as pollinators, seeddispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates in different habitats Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares , Findley , Kalko Bats have been considered good indicators of forest conditions because of 5 6 their sensibility to forest disturbance Johns et al.

Consequently, it is important to identify differential ecological responses that may indicate changing habits if we are to understand and conserve forest habitats.

Neotropical bats differ in their distribution and abundance in respond to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata Bonaccorso , Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Bernard , Kalko and Handley , Lim and Engstrom Furthermore, capture rates of some species show significant differences between understory and canopy nets Kalko and Handley Changes in strata use are mainly related to tracking of food resources and changes in sex ratio may indicate reproductive constraints in one sex.

These differences in behavior may be used as indirect evidence of differential foraging and reproductive behavior Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Fleming , , Gardner et al.

For example, Carollia perspicillata in Costa Rica showed a male-skewed sex ratio during the dry season, a period of low food availability, when females migrate for energetic reasons to give birth in another site Fleming In Panami, the understory bat C.

Additionally, the sex ratio can give information about habitat change, social and reproductive structure, and survivorship Fleming , Estrada and Coates-Estrada , Stoner I intensively surveyed a lowland forest and a cloud forest for 3.

This was accomplished by concentrating on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats 7 captured in these forests.

Additionally, I measured rainfall, ambient temperature, and forest structure to see if these factors are related to variability of bat ecology.

The lowland site was Cerro Batipa 80 20' The site lies in a tropical moist forest life zone Tosi and has a tropical climate with a prolonged dry season McKay based on De Martonne This climate has a mean annual ambient temperature of The study region is in the Province of Chiriquf, western Pacific Panamd.

Caribbean Sea Boc de Toro R. Fortuna fi U1 C ica David. Figure These forests are found along an elevational transect within the Gualaca Altitudinal Biological Corridor.

The reserve ranges in elevation from m Dfaz , but the study site spans an elevational range of m.

Fortuna has two life zones Tosi , Diaz , premontane wet forest and lower wet mountain forest. It shows a montane oceanic climate McKay based on De Martonne , with mean annual ambient temperature of C and annual rainfall of mm Cavelier , McKay The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Diaz , classified as a tropical ombrophilous shade-tolerant cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg The forest canopy is m in height, with an open canopy and emergent trees of 40 m, and a dense understory Cavelier Anthurium and Monstera are abundant, as are vines and lianas, but there are few bromeliads.

Epiphytic bryophytes are present, but are not as abundant as Araceae. Cyclanthaceae, Arecaceae, and Piperaceae are common in the understory, as well as tree ferns Mayo et al.

Both study sites are important for conserving biodiversity and establishing biological corridors in Panami. Batipa is the second-largest remaining fragment of lowland forest in Chiriqui Tovar , and Fortuna is one of the best-preserved mountain forests in Panami Diaz I sampled each bat community with mist nets for 1 to 4 nights monthly, depending on weather.

Ten sampling stations were established in the lowlands and seven in the cloud forest. Each station was sampled for 1 to 2 nights with eight 2.

Nets were opened usually from sunset h to midnight h and checked every min. Total sampling involved mist net hours mnh during nights lowlands mnh during nights, cloud forest mnh during nights.

Captured bats were placed in individual cloth bags, identified, marked, and released within 1 hour of capture. Bat species identification was based on keys for Panamanian lowland and western highland bats C.

Handley manuscripts and a field guide of Central American mammals Reid Only adult and subadult bats were marked Chapter 3. I recorded species, sex, age, reproductive condition, forearm length, body mass, hour, and location station, net number, and strata.

The use of mist nets to study bat or avian ecology has advantages and disadvantages LaVal , Fleming et al. Some advantages for assessing ecological information are that species can be properly identified, individuals can be measured, and their relative abundance can be estimated.

Disadvantages are that capture rates are influenced by factors other than the relative abundance of the animal. These factors include weather, net location, variability in net 12 Figure Arrangement of mist nets in sampling stations.

Mist nets were set in pairs, one in the understory m , the other in the canopy m. Remsen and Good suggested long-term studies on marked individuals overcome some of these disadvantages.

My study reduced some negative biases of mist nets because it was a long-term study 3. Rainfall and Temperature Records I obtained local records of rainfall and temperature data from the Empresa de Transmisi6n Electrica S.

I have 4 years of records for annual and monthly rainfall from the cloud forest m and from Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias 35 in , which is 20 km from the study site in the lowlands.

The records for ambient temperature Ta include 4 years of annual and monthly means, maximal Tamax , and minimal Tamin temperatures from FCA in the lowlands and the cloud forest.

Forest Structure Measurements I measured the following attributes to describe forest structure: basal area, tree height, understory cover, canopy cover, and slope, in four plots at each study site.

In , I established two 20 x 50 m 0. One plot was at the beginning of the station near the first mist nets, and the other was at the end near the last mist nets.

I measured the diameter at breast height DBH, stem diameter at 1. I measured the heights of the five tallest trees in each plot with a clinometer.

I divided each plot into five 50 m transects spaced 5 m apart 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 m and randomly chose one transect from the three interior ones 5, 10, or 15 m to measure understory and canopy cover percentages.

I applied the line intercept method to calculate the percentage of segments intercepted by the vegetation in the understory and a concave spherical crown densiometer for each 10 m of the transect, avoiding the borders, for calculating the amount of canopy cover.

In each plot, the slope of the terrain was also calculated with a clinometer at a mean distance of 12 m. Data Analysis Mean relative abundance of species was estimated from 3 years of data as the number of monthly individuals captured per mist netting effort for total, season, strata, and sex.

The months of July through December were not included in this analysis. For the seasonal analysis, seasons were defined as the dry season, from January to April; the early rainy season, from May to August; and the late rainy season, from September to December.

A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in this index over years, across seasons, and between strata and forests for the most abundant nectarivores and frugivores Sall and Lehman A heterogeneity G2 goodness-of-fit test was used to determine differences in strata preference among seasons and differences in sex ratio according to season and strata.

I compared annual rainfall using G2 goodness-of-fit test and mean monthly precipitation and Ta, Tamax, and T7min between sites using a t-test.

Mean annual rainfall values mm for a cloud forest Fortuna m and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias: FCA 35 m from to Mean solid bars and standard deviation of monthly rainfall in millimeters mm for meteorological stations in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias with the elevations expressed in meters in.

Both sites have 4 years records Mean annual rainfall in millimeters mm is shown for cloud forest and lowland site.

Mean monthly ambient temperature, maximal temperature, minimal temperature, and differences between maximal and minimal temperature in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias: FCA.

Temperature values are expressed in degrees Celsius 'C and elevation in meters m. Temperature records are for 4 years Mean monthly and annual rainfall mm values SD recorded in lowlands Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias and cloud forest Fortuna meteorological stations.

Rainfall records are for 4 years Site elevation for lowlands was 35 m. Site elevation for cloud forest was m. Mean monthly and annual ambient temperature Ta , maximal temperature Tmax , and minimal temperature Tamin 'C recorded in the lowlands Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias and in the cloud forest Fortuna Sites elevations are reported in meter m and noted in parentheses.

Although the lowland forest had a lower and higher slope and basal area, respectively, than the cloud forest, these differences were not significant Table Table Parameter Lowland forest Cloud forest Elevation m 95 Slope 0 In the lowland forest the effort was nets-hrs, nets-hrs for the dry season and nets-hrs for the entire rainy season.

In the cloud forest the effort was nets-hrs, for the dry season and nets-hrs for the rainy season. I captured bats belonging to 53 species at both sites, 35 species in the lowland forest and 34 species in the cloud forest Appendix A.

I found differences among bat species in overall forest strata use at both sites Appendix A. Species belonging to the subfamilies Phyllostominae e.

I also found a similar trend in preference for the 21 canopy in small e. The other species used both strata or their low sample size did not allow the detection of differences in the use of strata Appendix A.

There were seasonal differences in the frequency use of strata in only two species of lowland bats, A. Two lowland understory species, T.

In the cloud forest two species had seasonal differences in the use of strata, S. A detailed analysis of seasonal patterns in strata use by bats will be discussed in Chapter 4.

Bat Sex Ratio Only two frugivorous species A. Cloud forest species that showed differences in male:female ratio included a nectarivore H.

For some species there were differences in the sex ratio between the sites Appendix A. For example, C. The sex ratio was calculated from 3 years mean of seasonal values of species abundance.

Discussion This long-term study has demonstrated that bat capture-rates vary with forest type and season in terms of vertical stratification and sex ratio.

Previous studies, addressing the vertical stratification in bats, did not sample in different seasons e. An asterik indicates a significant difference in the G test for the season P -7,' ItlI.

Q I- 25 Gardner et al. With this study, I hope to contribute to the development of a standard sampling protocol for bats, and to understanding of the bat ecology that can be applied to conservation.

Strata Use by Bats The results indicate that lowland bats use strata differentially, whereas the cloud forest bats were mostly use the canopy.

Nevertheless, in both forests the canopy was intensely used by bats, with 33 species captured in the lowland forest canopy and 29 species captured in the cloud forest canopy Appendix A, Chapter 3.

The differences in the spatial distribution of bats may be due to differences in diet, foraging behavior, roost-site selection, or morphology Kalko et al.

Lowland species that gleaned insects e. The only understory cloud forest bat was S. As in the lowlands, large and small cloud forest bats e.

Carollia perspicillata feeds on canopy fruits during the late rainy season on Barro Colorado Island Bonaccorso , Thies Large frugivorous bats in the cloud forest were almost exclusively using the canopy.

The dense understory in the cloud forest can be the main cause of the high canopy captures of large bats. For example, A.

A seasonal change in the strata use by bats was found in lowland canopy frugivores: S. However, in the cloud forest, members of the same genera S.

This opposite trend in strata use by pairs of co-generic species suggests contrasting plant phenology in these sites Heithaus et al.

Bat Sex Ratio Several species of bats at the two sites showed a departure from the expected 1 male: 1 female adult sex ratio.

In temperate bats, adult sex ratios are frequently male biased in hibernating as well as in non-hibernating species Gaisler , Keen and Hitchkock In the lowland forest, all sex ratios that differed from A.

Previous studies in lowland bats indicate that Phyllostomus hastatus, P. A study in a Costa Rica dry forest found A. For some species, a low sample size due to captures only in the understory may limit the ability to detect a significant departure from the expected sex ratio.

Artibeusjamaicensis differed with forest type in the frequency use of strata. In the cloud forest, five species were female biased and two were male biased.

For example, the nectarivorous H. This proportion of males to females suggests spatial segregation of sexes in Hylonycteris, as has been indicated for Centurio senex Goodwin and Greenhall , Handley , Paradiso This marked difference in the proportion of males to females might not be detected if I had sampled only in the understory, because this bat used both strata equally.

Carollia perspicillata has been reported in lowland Panami and Costa Rica with an adult sex ratio of Fleming , Thies , Stoner , this study , but this species in the cloud forest had a femalebiased sex ratio.

The increase in females in the cloud forest, where this species showed a migratory pattern Chapter 4 , could represent immigration of females from areas outside of my study site, as has been argued by Fleming Artibeusjamaicensis, also with some degree of migratory behavior Chapter 4 , had a male biased sex ratio, which differed from its lowland population.

Furthermore, I captured only six females in reproductive condition of 34 recorded during the 3. A differential distribution of sex ratio with elevation has been demonstrated for temperate insectivore bats, which show few females at high elevation, especially in reproductive condition Cryan et al.

I detected seasonal variation in the sex ratio of two lowland species. For example, although C. In Costa Rican dry forests this species also has a period with more males, but it occurs during the dry season or 28 early rainy season Fleming , Stoner Three cloud forest bats had seasonal changes in sex ratio.

More females of the understory bat S. The identification of differences in the species' response to environmental variation is important for understanding maintenance of biological diversity and for the use of species as indicators of ecosystem "health".

I have demonstrated that within bats, species' ecological response to environmental variability include the differential use of forest strata and changes in their adult sex ratio with season and site.

Although it is clear that bats are sensitive to habitat disturbance, I recommend caution in the interpretation of results from studies examining bat sex ratio or the influence of forest disturbance on bats without considering their strata preferences.

The two components of diversity, species richness and abundance, are strongly related to the concept of species co-existence, and they represent basic measures to describe patterns of species co-existence Tokeshi The identification of patterns and processes is directly related to the spatial and temporal scales of the study in which large scales deal with evolutionary factors, whereas medium to smaller scales deal with ecological factors Wiens , Huston , Tokeshi , Willis and Whittaker An analysis of diversity patterns and processes can be done only through the comparison of appropriate taxonomic e.

A promising, but difficult, approach to describing patterns and processes of biological diversity is to study a speciose and ecologically important taxon with a wide distribution; bats are an ideal taxonomic group with which to take such an approach Kalko New World bats are the most diverse mammals in terms of number of species Wilson , Findley and feeding habits Janzen and Wilson , Kalko in tropical communities.

They play important roles as pollinators, 29 30 seed dispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Findley , Kalko and occupy many forest types Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares Therefore, the identification of ecological patterns in bat communities and factors influencing their diversity is important for the understanding and conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.

Currently, our knowledge of patterns and processes in bat communities is poor. This is due in part to the lack of standardized, long-term comparative studies, and behavioral and ecological data at the species level Fleming a, Willig , Findley , Kalko , , Stevens and Willig These sampling biases may limit the ability of these studies to detect evolutionary, biogeographic, or ecological patterns.

None of these studies e. Considering the role of the forest canopy in plant and animal ecology is necessary when estimating species diversity and the mechanisms that underlie it Lowman and Nadkarni , DeVries et al.

I examine ecological characteristics of species that correlate with distribution and abundance within and between sites and among seasons.

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